2021 conference presentation
Two Steps Forward and One Step Back: Remediating an International Masters’ Programme Environment
Together with Sylvi Vigmo. Designs for Learning: Remediation of Learning online conference, May 25–26, 2021, Stockholm university, Sweden.
This study presents the ongoing development of the Social Sciences of Sustainability umbrella platform at Jönköping University, which currently brings together three separate international masters’ programmes, a decision made by the School of Education and Communication. Our primary focus is one of them, the in itself interdisciplinary Learning, Digitalization and Sustainability (LeaDS) programme, which has its foundation in the field of education, but branches out into communication, leadership, digitalization, culture, diversity, and social sustainability. We outline the process of remediation from when the programme was first conceived in 2019 as a joint international partnership between universities in Mumbai, India, and in Jönköping, Sweden, towards the still international, but also sustainability-oriented and interdisciplinary platform that currently is being built at Jönköping University. The process has involved taking two steps forward and one step back for a number of reasons and, through an autoethnographic lens (Adams, Holman Jones & Ellis, 2015), this presentation aims to discuss the process of intercultural, interdisciplinary and interpersonal professional/academic learning that have taken place over the last few years. Why have some aspects, constellations and collaborations worked well and continued to be a part of the developing programme whereas others turned out less sustainable?
In the autumn of 2019, the first pilot course, Digitalization and Implementation Processes in School (DIP1) was launched followed by DIP2 in the spring. In the autumn 2020, both DIP1 and DIP2 were remediated in terms of design, in terms of level (as doctoral equivalents/third cycle courses are now offered as well), and with regard to how they fit into the structure of the upcoming programme LeaDS. The initial programme specific group (LeaDS), already interdisciplinary, was extended to include the competences represented in the other two masters’ programmes, Sustainable Communication (Media and Communication studies) and GlobalS (Global Studies). All partners have taken part in a shared process of remediation to integrate the umbrella platform idea. Issues growing out of the creation of joint courses, elective courses, as well as programme specific courses, revealed challenges and structural constraints. Another decision, not yet taken due to the pandemic, concerns whether teaching should be online/offline or a hybrid/hyflex, but this is also a reflection of how we as programme designers have collaborated during the process.
In order to map the various voices involved in the process outlined above, we are drawing on Smyth, MacNeill and Hartley’s (2016) conceptual matrix, which “suggests four key constructs to identify the key dimensions of the Digital University.” The model highlights digital participation, information literacy, curriculum and course design, as well as learning environment aspects. In addition, we rely on Trowler and Cooper’s (2002) concept teaching and learning regimes as we explore the instantiations, selections, negotiations and contestations, and with this a focus on power and agency (Deleuze & Guattari, 1986), involved in the remediation of teaching and learning environments. With this presentation we revisit our design process taking the matrix, teaching and learning regimes as analytical points of departure to illustrate our autoethnographical navigation around unforeseen challenges and obstacles.
Resisting Commodification: Subverting the power of global tech companies
Special issue. LDaD, Languaging, Diversity and Democracy. Contemporary issues of participation and ways-of-being across the global North-South. Ed: Sangeeta Bagga-Gupta. Bandung.
book chapter (in Swedish)
Diskursanalys i engelskundervisningen
Diskursanalys med utbildningsvetenskapliga perspektiv. Eds: Angerd Eilard and Christoffer Dahl. Studentlitteratur, 2021.
Oavsett språk är diskursanalys som metod huvudsakligen densamma, men den kulturella kontexten och förförståelsen, och därmed förutsättningarna för att analysera, kan skilja sig från varandra. I detta kapitel kommer jag att utgä från en av de uppgifter jag ger till mina studenter: att analysera USA:s självständighetsförklaring från 1776 (National Archives, Wikisource) utifrån ett historiefokuserat diskursanalytiskt perspektiv. Med hjälp av diskursanalytikerna Ruth Wodak och Michael Meyer kommer jag även att gå igenom vad det historieanalytiska diskursperspektivet innebär och ge förslag p. hur detta kan användas i undervisningen på olika nivåer. Att kontextualisera historiskt så väl som hierarkiskt, det vill säga att lära sig se och förstå sociala maktspel, är i det här fallet centralt för målet att studenterna ska utveckla sin förmåga att läsa mellan raderna och kunna argumentera för sina tolkningar med hjälp av relevanta exempel.
2019 book chapter
Migration, Integration and Power: The Image of ‘the Dumb Swede’ in Swede Hollow and the Image of Contemporary New Swedes in One Eye Red and She Is Not Me
Culture, Literature and Migration. Eds: Ali Tilbe and Rania Khalil. Transnational Press, London.
Ola Larsmo’s fictional Swede Hollow (2016) maps a time of Swedish late 19th century and early 20th century immigration into the United States. Extensively researched and based on authentic, contemporary sources, he highlights their toil and hardships in the new country, but he also shows their paths to becoming established U.S. citizens. With this as a backdrop, my aim for this paper is to draw parallels to more current literary images of immigration into Sweden as shown in Jonas Hassen Khemiri’s One Eye Red (2003) and Golnaz Hashemzadeh’s She Is Not Me (2015), particularly with regard to agency, the acceptance or resistance to adaptation to the majority culture and the negotiation of power.
My study is a literary analysis of the three novels. The two latter are written by authors who themselves are well acquainted with contemporary migration and integration issues and processes in Sweden. Jonas Hassen Khemiri’s mother is Swedish and his father is Tunisian and in his novel he portrays immigrant life in a Swedish multi-ethnic suburb of Stockholm with a 15-year-old boy as its main character. Golnaz Hashemzadeh and her family’s country of origin is Iran and she arrived in Sweden at the age of three. Her semi-autobiographical novel She Is Not Me portrays her own journey growing up in Swedish almost exclusively white and middle-class Gustavsberg, a small city with roughly 40.000 inhabitants situated south of Stockholm, and her ambition as she was accepted at the most prestigious universities in Sweden as well as in the U.S. but also the costs for her personally.
The use of Gilles Deleuze’s and Felìx Guattari’s concept of smooth and striated space will help me map the structures and shifts in power, agency and societal hierarchies. My paper addresses the costs as well as the benefits of migration and adapting to the majority culture in fín de siècle United States and contemporary Sweden respectively, how the characters (attempts to) build a bridge between the old culture and the new and how they carve out new identities and create possibilities for themselves while navigating more or less visible new structures and social hierarchies.
2016 journal article
’Luxury Refugees’ or ’People in Search of a Life?’ The causes and effects of migration in Taiye Selasi’s Ghana Must Go, and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Americanah
Special edition, International Journal of Technoscience and Development. Department of Technology and Aesthetics. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Spring 2016.
“Luxury refugees” has become a fairly common, derogatory term in media for people fleeing from sometimes war-torn areas, but, since they often have access to both money and the latest technology, they are often not regarded as “real refugees.” The image of the prototypical refugee often involves a person who has left everything behind, whose only belongings are the clothes he or she is wearing and some minor symbolic items reminding them of the home they have been forced to leave behind — a tragic, but heroic image. Those who use the term “luxury refugees” in a derogatory manner do not seem to realise, as professor of global health Hans Rosling argues: most of the people in the world today have had similar possibilities and access to the same type of technologies as anyone living in the western part of the world for quite some time now (Borgström), and therefore bring this with them if they can, and, in addition, that those who flee — especially those fleeing to the west — are the people, primarily belonging to the middle class, who have the means to do so (Clemens 13). The really poor are most often left behind to cope at the best of their abilities.
Some of the countries migrants originate from at the time of writing are Syria, Pakistan, Ghana and Nigeria. Syria is currently an obvious war zone haunted by several conflicting interest groups, Pakistan has battled the talibans for years, and Nigeria has well-known problems with the islamist group Boko Haram, although these problems affect only a small portion of the large country. Ghana, however, is one of the most stable democracies in Africa, with a steady improvement in living standards since the early 1990s, and as such the country is seemingly not a self-evident emigration candidate. Nevertheless, higher living standards usually equals a growing population, which requires jobs, and, as migration and development researcher Michael Clemens suggests, “[i]f wages are downwardly rigid this can mean rising unemployment and thus emigration pressure—compounded because younger workers are much more likely to migrate internationally than their older counterparts” (Clemens 12). This, in fact, foregrounds financial stability as a key reason causing people, especially the young, to flee their home countries, and this has been described in recent literature. In this essay, my empirical examples will be taken from two novels set in two of the countries mentioned above — Nigeria and Ghana — which have been written by the authors Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie and Taiye Selasi. Both Adichie, born in Nigeria and educated in the US, and Selasi, a British-American born in London to Nigerian and Ghanaian parents, describe the struggles of immigrants to the West. Adiche primarily focuses on the experiences of firstgeneration immigrants whereas Selasi focuses on both first-generation and second-generation ones, thus mirroring their own experiences and backgrounds. In this essay, my intention is to explore issues of migration and integration as displayed in Adichie’s Americanah and Selasi’s Ghana Must Go.
2014 book chapter
The Framework for University Level Text Analysis
Text Analysis: Culture, Framework & Teaching. Eds: Jane Mattisson and Maria Bäcke. Kristianstad University Press.
For several years there has been a huge emphasis on higher education’s role in shaping future employees to fit the requirements of potential employers and adapting education to the recruitment needs of the same. This is not the only goal of higher education, however. At the very beginning, in section eight of the first chapter of the Swedish Higher Education Act, it is written that ”[f]irst-cycle courses and study programmes shall develop the ability of students to make independent and critical assessments.” In addition, ”students shall develop the ability to gather and interpret information at a scholarly level.” Both quotes highlight the aspect of critical analysis, which is mandatory for university studies regardless of field. To help develop critical thinking and further independent analysis among the students are thus two of the most important goals for Swedish educators in higher education.
Academic disciplines follow the Swedish Higher Education Act in various ways depending on the traditions and customs in their respective fields. Within the field of English literature, text analysis is at the forefront and a huge amount of research has been made delving into its method. Authors often encountered by students are Lois Tyson, M. Keith Booker, Terry Eagleton, and Jonathan Culler as they have written often used introductions to literary theory and critical perspectives. My aim in this paper is to focus on the teaching of literary text analysis as a method and a means to adhere to the independent and critical assessment requirement as well as to gather and interpret information — which I will focus on primarily — in the Swedish Higher Education Act. What are the strengths of text analysis as a method and to what extent does it contribute to fulfil the aims of higher education as expressed by Swedish law?
2012 journal article
Make-Believe and Make-Belief in Second Life Role-Playing Communities
Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies 18(1). Special issue. 85-92. DOI: 10.1177/1354856511419917
This feature article applies the concepts of ‘make-believe’ and ‘make-belief’ formulated by performance theorist, Richard Schechner, in a study of two role-play communities, Midian City and Gor in the online 3D environment Second Life. With make-believe fantasy role-play at their core, members of the two communities negotiate the social and political norms, the goals of the community and as well as the boundaries of the virtual role-play. The article explores the innovative forms of interaction at play in these negotiation processes, using (cyber)ethnographic methods and the analysis of various textual sources, Goffman’s theories of social performance as well as various types of performance discussed by Schechner and Auslander. The innovative forms of interaction are analysed in the light of the new technology and as performances and make-belief strategies directed towards realizing performative utopias, towards influencing the direction in which leaders and residents of this digital context want the role-play to develop, and towards shaping the emergent social and cultural rules and the political framework of the role-play.
2011 doctoral disstertation
Doctoral thesis. Blekinge Institute of Technology Doctorial Dissertation Series. No 2011:09. ISSN 1653-2090. ISBN 978-91-7295-209-6.
This study investigates how the members of four different role-playing communities on the online platform Second Life perform social as well as dramatic roles within their community. The trajectories of power influencing these roles are my main focus. Theoretically I am relying primarily on performance scholar Richard Schechner, sociologist, Erving Goffman, and post-structuralists Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze and Felìx Guattari. My methodological stance has its origin primarily within literature studies using text analysis as my preferred method, but I also draw on the (cyber)ethnographical works of T.L. Taylor, Celia Pearce, and Mikael Jakobsson. In this dissertation my focus is on the relationship of the role-player to their chosen role especially in terms of the boundary between being in character, and as such removed from "reality," and the popping out of character, which instead highlights the negotiations of the social, sometimes make-belief, roles. Destabilising and problematising the dichotomy between the notion of the online as virtual and the offline as real, as well as the idea that everything is "real" regardless of context, my aim is to understand role-play in a digital realm in a new way, in which two modes of performance, dramatic and social, take place in a digital context online.
2009 book chapter
Self, Setting, and Situation in Second Life
Literary Art in Digital Performance: Case Studies in New Media Art and Criticism. Ed: Francisco J. Ricardo, New York: Continuum. 109-142.
Linden Lab, the company behind the online world Second Life (SL), invites multiplic- ity with slogans like “Your World. Your Imagination.”1 Yet many SL residents’2 profiles give evidence of adjustment to group narratives or norms in various social spaces inside the world. They seem to favor already established social and cultural conventions when creating an online identity; hence they also adjust to already existing hierarchies. I argue that residents in SL recreate social orders and power structures similar to ones already existing outside SL, even though they are of course under no obligation to do so. In that sense social and cultural patterns are reproduced and in some cases even amplified. My aim here is to trace social dynamics evident in three groups within this digital space and my hypothesis is that the rules of these social spaces then function as a foundation and guideline for identity formation, and in fact almost seem to prescribe a certain way of acting or behaving. Two of the groups have a clear role-playing profile, based on books and movies, whereas role-playing is not required, although possible, in the third group. All of them are thus removed from the lifeworld by constituting either purely fictive or, conversely, historical constructs, but they can nevertheless provide clues to how the residents think in an environment that is not primarily “real life” based, and in which anything, even a utopia, can be possible. By reading group charters and profile descriptions found in the SL search engine, and studying articles and blogs functioning either as group information channels or journals for individuals in each community, I examine the motivations and power structures driving avatar and online identity construction in role-playing communities, with a focus on the interac- tion between the overarching “state” power, the Linden Lab, the three communities, their respective role-models, and the rules that govern them, as well as the individuals that are a part of them.
2008 book chapter
Cyberculture and New Media. Ed. Francisco J. Ricardo, Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Increasingly important information and communication technologies (ICT) play a significant role – sometimes as an image, sometimes as a tool – for authors like Ellen Ullman, Melissa Scott, Jeanette Winterson and Pat Cadigan. In their novels they explore patterns of power, hierarchy and colonization through the destabilization of space and transgress boundaries in the space they create. By making connections between post-colonial/post-structural/post-modern theory and technology, I explore the authors’ reasons for making these transgressions.
Édouard Glissant explains how computers, and computer-mediated text, can generate a ‘‘space within the indeterminacy of axioms” and how this opens up possibilities to create a space where imaginative and ideological liberation is possible. Glissant’s idea of indeterminacy grows out of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari’s discussion about space and how it is structured. The virtual, seemingly topographical, space of the Internet has been described, on the one hand, as an information highway (striated space) and, on the other, as a web, where it is possible to surf (smooth space). I connect these concepts to the novels and explore to what extent the authors use these strategies to de-colonize the fictional, digital space their characters inhabit.
2008 conference presentation
Avant-Garde and Subversion in an Online 3D World
Under the Mask: Perspectives on the Gamer Conference, University of Bedfordshire, Luton
The 3D online world Second Life provides ample opportunities for both role-play and social interaction. Moreover, the relative lack of explicit game-rules (at least initially) on the part of the creator, Linden Lab, provided the gamers with a carte blanche to be anyone they want and give them the freedom to do almost anything. It has become clear, however, that Linden Lab has found reasons for making alterations in their legislative framework. Additionally, local game rules are being developed in many places and there are huge differences in how these rules are maintained and enforced. Using theories of the avant-garde (Greenberg, Poggioli, Bürger) as a stepping stone, as well as Manuel Castells four-layered theory of Internet cultures (the techno-meritocratic, the hacker, the virtual communitarian and the entrepreneurial culture), my intention is to explore the actions of, and the attitudes towards, the type of digital avant-garde that is exemplified by gamers/hackers/griefers/deviants. I will look at this both on a "global level" and on a local level, where communities and sim owners use different strategies to control their land and gamers behaviour on it. The global data will be taken from theIncident Management Report which is issued by the Second Life Governance Team on violation against Linden Lab rules. Additionally, I will carry out interviews with sim owners and community representatives, as well as with some of those who are labelled grievers. I will also look at blogs and articles that address the issue of grievers and disruptive behaviour in an online world.
2007 conference presentation
Construction of Digital Space: Second Life as a fantasy or a work tool
M3 - The Virtual '07 Conference, Södertörn University, Sweden
Drawing upon Gaston Bachelard´s The Poetics of Space and Henri Lefebvre´s The Production of Space, I read both private and public digital 3D spaces made available through SL and examine to what extent they are inscribed in or distanced from the underlying ideology of Second Life. I use textual sources - written codes of conduct, covenants written by the land owners, actual buildings and environments created in Second Life, an interview, as well as blogs and articles - to explore how three different categories of space are constructed and maintained: one where SL is primarily seen as a work tool for profit or teaching, another where the main goal is a detailed, homogenuous and highly visual space, and a third category where a homogenuous space is created in order to enable a more organized fantasy and facilitate game-play. Choice of Theme: Expressions of ideology in design and digital technologies
2007 journal article
"Freedom for Just One Night": The Promise and Threat of Information and Communication Technologies
WomenWriters.net, Vol. Spring, nr Special Guest Issue
’Freedom for Just One Night’ The Promise and Threat of Information and Communication Technologies Not many novels have been written about technology from a female perspective, but Jeanette Winterson’s The PowerBook and Pat Cadigan’s children’s book Avatar are two examples where information and communication technologies (ICT) play a major role. That women often see the benefits of a less regulated space provided by the technology is explored in these two novels. In this essay I will study them through the lens of Deleuze and Guattari’s concept of smooth and striated space. The focus has been on three different issues: information and communication technology’s impact on identity; privacy and security on the Internet; and also – since both of the authors are women, who consider gender-related strategies – female views of ICT. The novels contradict the idea that there is a virtual reality entirely separated from the real world; both imply that although ICT creates a virtual environment, the meetings and communications that take place in it are real, especially from an emotional perspective. The novels suggest that the characters’ sense of identity and security often is tested when opposites – smooth/striated, online/offline, virtual/real, emotional/technical, private/public – collide, when this collision triggers an emotional response. In Avatar emotions are in fact a method to authenticate the validity of what happens in a virtual environment. Furthermore, the collision and its impact on the emotions create an indeterminacy, a smooth space, and seems to be a narrative strategy for both Winterson and Cadigan, which they both use to examine a number of issues, including patriarchy, which shows what these female authors think is possible to do with the help of ICT. Both texts study how the Internet – and the thoughts mediated through the Internet – influence individuals and societies. As a new medium, Internet can be considered new territory, a new frontier. Whose thoughts are going to be trendsetting on the Net? Who colonizes Cyberspace? Both authors point towards the benefits of a more balanced viewpoint, where more angles than one are taken into account, and what can happen when a hegemonic world-view has been shaken. These novels convincingly show that it is in the dynamic tension between smooth and striated that new viewpoints can be found.
2007 conference presentation
Identity to Fit the Environment: The Creation of Avatars in Second Life Role-Playing Sims
League of Worlds 4 Conference, The Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden
This study will examine whether residents in the 3D online world Second Life create their avatars and their online identity to correspond to the theme of the (role-playing group/s) in which they are a member. I will primarily look at one Star Wars group, one Gorean group, and one Victorian Steampunk group. All these three groups are closely linked to social, and highly visual, spaces in Second Life. I will primarily search for cues in the individual avatar profilesoften consisting of both text and images created by the residents themselves and available in the SL search engineto find out if their online identities are in line with (or stand in opposition) to the main narrative of the group.
2006 conference presentation
Avatars in Second Life: Creating a Persona in a Virtual World
League of Worlds 3 Conference, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina, U.S.
Avatars in Second Life Creating a Persona in a Virtual World Researcher like Donna J. Haraway or Sherry Turkle have highlighted the possibility of fluid and flexible online identities, identities that provide opportunities to explore and expand the real world selfempowering, destabilizing and exhilarating. I intend to look at how the residents in Second Life present themselves, how they build their online persona to create an identity of their liking. I will look at their online presentations in order to investigate to what extent they use keywords or pictures to signal their online or offline preferences or perhaps their belonging to an online subculture. Additionally, I will interview a few of the residents in an attempt to find out their reasons for creating the character they have invented.
2005 exam paper, German
Zum schwedischen Dialekt Malungsmål und dessen Beziehungen zur deutschen Sprache
Exam paper, German, Karlstad University, Sweden
Denna uppsats undersöker samband och likheter, primärt grammatiska sådana, mellan det tyska språket och malungsmål, en svensk dialekt från Dalarna. Uppsatsen ger först en kort översikt över teorier om hur dialekter i både Tyskland och Sverige förändras grammatiskt och ger sedan en mer detaljerad bild av dialekten malungsmål. Denna bild bygger bland annat på den grammatiska kartläggning dialektforskare som Lars Levander och Ola Bannbers gjorde av dialekter i Dalarna under tidigt 1920-tal. I februari 2001 gjordes fem korta intervjuer av lärare och studenter vid Västerdalarnas gymnasieskola i Malung och en enkätundersökning där totalt 166 svar inkom. Både intervjuer och enkätundersökning visade på en tendens att det är en fördel att utgå från sina eventuella kunskaper om dialekten vid inlärning av tyska eftersom det, som intervjuer, enkätundersökning och speciellt den grammatiska översikten visar, finns många likheter, i synnerhet strukturella sådana, mellan tysk grammatik och malungsmålets grammatik. Uppsatsen avslutas med en önskan om att lärare i Malung ska dra fördel av dessa likheter och dra paralleller mellan dialekten och tyskan i sin undervisning, eftersom detta kan ge ytterligare infallsvinklar som kan tydliggöra och underlätta språkinlärning.
2004 exam paper, Media & Communication studies
Differences in News Angels between countries - comparing newspapers in the USA, Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland and Sweden
Exam paper, Media & Communication studies, Karlstad University, Sweden
Idag är idén om möjligheten att hitta en absolut sanning ifrågasatt och människor blir mer och mer medvetna om den dolda dagordning som styr det globala nyhetsflödet. Frågan är snarast: vem styr dagordningen? Vilka åsikter framställs som Sanningen? Det är inte alltid självklart att få möjlighet att föra fram sin egen version av en händelse. Denna uppsats undersöker artiklar som tar upp det amerikanska kongressvalet som hölls den 5 november 2002. Artiklarna kommer från tretton tidningar i sju olika länder – USA, Storbritannien, Frankrike, Tyskland, Italien, Schweiz och Sverige. Innehållet i dessa artiklar analyseras ur olika perspektiv, primärt med hjälp av Geert Hofstedes interkulturella teori, men även mediaägande och -historik tas med i beräkningen. Dessutom kan inrikespolitiska mål ofta märkas, exempelvis i ländernas medielagstiftning. Studien visar det amerikanska perspektivets genomslagskraft, men även hur nationella media i varje land har en egen dagordning som inte nödvändigtvis följer den amerikanska linjen. Den valda teorin kan förklara en del av skillnaderna mellan de undersökta länderna, men studien tar också upp frågan om hur samhället förändras och om media formas av kulturen den är en del av eller om media istället formar kulturen. Det troligaste svaret är: både och. Den vinkling som media väljer kommer att bidra till att forma till en framtida historieskrivning. De olika vinklingarna är därför viktiga eftersom ett flertal synvinklar kan ge en mer nyanserad och balanserad sanning.
2003 exam paper, English
“To catch sight of her and then again to lose her” - trickster behaviur in Virgina Woolfs Orlando
Exam paper, English literature, Karlstad University, Sweden
Several of the characters in Virginia Woolf’s Orlando have traits that resembles those of a classical female folk-tale trickster, who exposes hypocrisies and stupidities in the patriarchal society and introduces new ways of thinking. My aim is mainly to explore how the narrator in Orlando, but also some of the characters in the novel, can be said to function as tricksters. Additionally, my intention is to investigate the motivations behind the use of trickster attributes. The novel gives us an opportunity to explore different structures, both literary ones, in this case biography writing, and social ones. The psychological and social issues connected with gender are foregrounded and examined when Orlando changes from man to woman. Orlando’s shape-shifting gives us the opportunity to study the tricks, masks and disguises women hide behind in order to please, use or transform men; to be able to have more power over their own lives. The way the narrator displays multiple view-points can help the reader to break free from ”habits of thinking” and critically examine the expected roles of men and women. By violating the norms of society the characters are in a position to define new rules for themselves, and create a space where they can live a less restricted life. In my opinion, the novel suggests that any woman – or man – who wants to break out of the patriarchal society’s confining structures seems to be forced to become a trickster.